|President Obama and the First Family arrive in Cuba. Photo: Joe Raedle/Getty Images.|
FACT SHEET: United States-Cuba Relationship
President Obama’s trip to Cuba marks a historic milestone in the normalization process between the United States and Cuba. Since President Obama and Cuban President Raul Castro announced that the two countries would initiate a new era of relations 15 months ago, we have expanded cooperation across a range of areas for the benefit of the citizens of both the United States and Cuba. We are advancing our shared interests and working together on complex issues that for too long defined – and divided – our relationship. The President’s Cuba policy now allows us to more effectively improve the lives of the Cuban people, advance our interests and values, and build broader ties of cooperation across the Americas.
[Read: Ted Cruz on President Obama's visit to Cuba]
Normalization will be a complex, long-term process and challenges remain, but President Obama believes that engagement offers a path toward success where isolation has failed for more than 50 years. We will engage and work through challenges in order to empower the Cuban people and advance the interests of the United States.
Connecting the U.S. and Cuban People
As President Obama said in his State of the Union address, we have sought ways to increase opportunity for Americans and improve the lives of the Cuban people, including by opening the door to increased travel and commerce between our two countries. The President fundamentally believes that the best way to achieve that goal is by facilitating more interaction between the Cuban and American people, including through travel and commercial opportunities, and through more access to information. We have great confidence the steps we have taken over the past year will lead to a better future for both the American and Cuban people.
On March 15, the Department of the Treasury authorized Americans to travel to Cuba provided that, among other things, the traveler engage in a full-time schedule of educational exchange activities that result in meaningful interaction with individuals in Cuba. Previously, Americans were required to travel to Cuba under the auspices of an organization and be accompanied by a representative of the sponsoring organization.
The United States and Cuba in December 2015 reached an arrangement to re-establish regular, direct flights between the United States and Cuba for the first time in more than 50 years. U.S. carriers have applied to the Department of Transportation for an allocation of the new opportunities to provide scheduled flights, which will begin later this year. Thirteen U.S. carriers have applied to provide direct flights to Havana from 20 U.S. gateway cities, as well as one-stop flights from three additional U.S. cities. In addition, seven U.S. carriers have applied to provide scheduled flights to the other nine international airports in Cuba from five U.S. gateway cities. For more information about authorized travel to Cuba, including the 12 categories of travel permitted by law, please visit Department of the Treasury’s page.
The United States and Cuba have re-established the direct transportation of mail between the two countries. On March 16, the first direct flight of mail from the United States arrived in Cuba after 53 years. One letter sent on the first direct mail flight was a personal letter from President Obama to Ileana R. Yarza, in response to a letter she sent to the White House.
The United States and Cuba have begun to collaborate on port security and have conducted reciprocal port visits. The U.S. Coast Guard assessed that Cuban ports meet international port security standards and lifted the Port Security Advisory on Cuba. This step helps clear the way for ferry and cruise ship services between the United States and Cuba to begin.
The United States and Cuba signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that recognizes the mutual interests and challenges of both countries in improving services for maritime navigation safety to protect the marine environment and promote safe maritime economic activities. The MOU will facilitate the exchange of data to update nautical charts, monitor and forecast tides and currents for ports, and other related activities. Improved navigation services are important for commercial mariners and recreational boaters alike, particularly as travel and trade increases between the two countries.
For the first time, Cuba will be included as a participating country in the Hubert H. Humphrey Fellowship Program, which brings 200 outstanding mid-career professionals from developing countries to the United States for non-degree study and related professional experiences, and the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship Program, which offers grants for U.S. undergraduates of limited financial means to pursue academic studies or internships abroad.
The goal of 100,000 Strong in the Americas, the President’s signature education initiative in the Western Hemisphere, is to increase the number of student exchanges in the Americas to 100,000 in both directions by 2020. As part of the President’s visit to Cuba, the United States is proud to announce a new $1 million commitment from the Cuban American community to the 100,000 Strong in the Americas Innovation Fund, which provides opportunities to create university partnerships that enhance regional competitiveness and provide new study abroad opportunities. This funding will support Cuba-specific Innovation Competitions in both countries, to advance student exchanges focused on entrepreneurship, with a secondary focus on agricultural management, business and social innovation, environmental and sustainable energy, language learning, international trade and development, study abroad infrastructure, and cultural collaborations.
The 100,000 Strong in the Americas Innovation Fund will also launch the 10th Innovation Competition: Promoting Study Abroad Partnerships for Innovation and Collaboration. This competition is supported through a contribution from Santander Bank as part of their $1 million commitment to 100,000 Strong in the Americas. All higher educational institutions in the Western Hemisphere that promote study abroad programs between the United States and other countries in the hemisphere are eligible to compete.
At the request of and in coordination with the Cuban Government, the United States will send English-language specialists to work with the Cuban Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Higher Education for programs to support English teacher training this spring and summer. We also will offer a selection of online courses for Cuban teachers of English from the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Higher Education later this year.
Over 250 young leaders from the United States and the region will take part in Youth Leaders of the Americas Initiative (YLAI) fellowships this year that enable them to develop joint business and civil society initiatives while at universities, businesses, and other institutions in the United States. The United States will welcome 10-15 Cuban participants among the 250 YLAI Fellows who will be in the United States in the fall of 2016.
The United States will invite up to 10 Cuban entrepreneurs to this year’s Global Entrepreneurship Summit (GES) in Silicon Valley . The event will include 700 entrepreneurs, representing every country in the world. A total of 100 entrepreneurs from Latin America and the Caribbean will participate. GES provides an opportunity for entrepreneurs to build new skills, grow their networks, and connect with peers, mentors, and investors from around the globe.
In June 2016, NBA legend Shaquille O’Neal will travel to Cuba for a Sports Envoy Program focusing on youth in Havana. The program will be the first in which U.S. Embassy in Havana will partner with the Cuban Ministry of Sports. In November 2016, Misty Copeland, the American Ballet Theatre’s first Principal Dancer of color, will travel to Cuba to conduct master classes and speaking engagements. She will also lead dance clinics for minority youth and hold inclusion workshops for coaches, with a special focus on building athletic programs for female youth.
Expanding Business and Commercial Ties
The Administration has taken a number of steps to ease certain travel, trade, and financial transaction restrictions applicable to Cuba. These regulatory changes have made it easier for U.S. businesses, educational entities, and NGOs to engage with Cuban counterparts to provide resources, share information, and help the private sector grow. Regulatory changes by the Departments of the Treasury and Commerce are encouraging more engagement by U.S. telecommunications and Internet companies in Cuba to support better connectivity and access to information for the Cuban people. We have also made it easier for Cuban entrepreneurs to access resources and best practices from the United States.
Empowering Civil Society and Standing Up for Human Rights
In March 2015, the United States and Cuba held the first planning session in Washington, D.C., for a Human Rights Dialogue at which both governments raised issues to pursue. Our commitment to universal human rights and support for democratic principles in Cuba is unwavering. We will continue to call out the Cuban Government’s violations of human rights and will advocate for the respect of universal human rights including freedom of expression and peaceful assembly. We remain convinced the Cuban people would be best served by being able to freely choose their leaders, express their ideas without fear, practice their faith, hold institutions accountable, and participate in civil society groups.
The United States and Cuba agree on the importance of combating human trafficking. As such, the United States and Cuba have each agreed to invite the U.N.'s Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons to conduct an official visit in their respective countries.
Health and Science Cooperation
The United States and Cuba have committed to deepen scientific and public health cooperation, focusing on communicable diseases including arboviruses such as Zika, dengue and chikungunya, as well as on the prevention and treatment of chronic non-communicable diseases such as cancer. In the coming months, the United States and Cuba intend to work toward finalizing arrangements to strengthen our collaboration in these and other scientific and health areas.
The President’s policy change has increased the ability for American and Cuban experts to collaborate on important science and technology issues of mutual interest such as sister parks, oceans conservation and disease monitoring and reduction. Foundations and philanthropies in the United States have been critical to the funding of a wide range of joint research projects. The Department of State plans to convene a working group with U.S.-based philanthropies and the scientific community to investigate areas where they might work to enhance collaboration between our two research communities to tackle common challenges.
The Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Cuban Ministry of Agriculture developed an MOU to increase bilateral cooperation in agriculture, recognizing the mutual interest of both countries in advancing agricultural technologies, agricultural productivity, food security, and sustainable natural resource management. Additionally, USDA is working with the Cuban Ministry of Agriculture to schedule a visit to the Caribbean Climate Sub Hub in Puerto Rico in late May of 2016. The hub supports applied research and provides information to farmers, ranchers, advisors, and managers to support climate-related decision making. During this visit, USDA and the Ministry of Agriculture will exchange information on tools and strategies for climate change response that help producers cope with challenges associated with drought, heat stress, excessive moisture, longer growing seasons, and changes in pest pressure. Cuba has long had institutional and legal frameworks to address climate change and has established a robust national disaster risk reduction framework that supports its early warning system for extreme weather events.
USDA will also allow industry-funded Research and Promotion (or “Check-off”) programs and Marketing Order Committees to use their resources for certain authorized research and information exchange activities with Cuba. Research and Promotion and Marketing Order Boards, Committees and Councils have an opportunity to participate in this partnership as certain information exchanges with Cuban Government and industry officials, and industry-funded health, science, nutrition, and consumer-oriented research activities with Cuba will be permitted.
Climate, Energy, and the Environment
The United States and Cuba recognize the threats posed by climate change to both our countries, including worsening impacts such as continued sea-level rise, the alarming acidification of our oceans, and the striking incidence of extreme weather events. Cooperative action to address this challenge is more critical than ever. The United States welcomes opportunities to work with Cuba to enhance our bilateral cooperation on climate change, and also work together to play a positive role in addressing this urgent global challenge through international fora.
Building on the successful conclusion of the December 2015 Paris Agreement, the United States and Cuba intend to sign and join the Paris Agreement as soon as feasible this year. The United States will also work with Cuba to pursue cooperation in the areas of disaster risk reduction, addressing ocean acidification, advancing climate-smart agriculture, and sharing best practices and lessons learned through international initiatives focused on adaptation and low emissions development.
Also recognizing the importance of secure and efficient energy supplies for both countries. The United States is pleased to invite Cuba to join Caribbean and Central American countries at the Energy Summit on in Washington, D.C. to be chaired by Vice President Biden. The Energy Summit focuses on enhancing energy security, regional cooperation, renewable integration, and coordination of international partners.
U.S. and Cuban Government representatives held technical exchanges on counternarcotics, fraud identification, human smuggling, and cybercrime, and we continue looking at better ways to share information and coordinate law enforcement activities. The United States and Cuba are also working toward an arrangement to combat illicit trafficking in drugs. In addition, the Department of Homeland Security and the Cuban Ministry of Interior are working toward finalizing an MOU to establish a working group, nestled within the framework of the Law Enforcement Dialogue, focused on trade, travel security, and border security.
Background on President Obama's meeting with entrepreneurs (from the White House)
President Obama’s Cuba policy is focused on helping the Cuban people improve their lives. Since charting a new Cuba policy, the United States has made regulatory changes to open up commercial ties between our countries at a time when a growing number of Cubans are self-employed. In Havana, the President will meet with Cuban entrepreneurs, or cuentapropistas, to hear their experiences. The event will include American entrepreneurs who will share their own experiences with their Cuban counterparts and look for opportunities to build long-term relationships. The Cuban government expanded licenses for private sector employment in 2010, leading to an increase in non-state sector employment from 145,000 in 2009 to approximately 500,000 in 2015. However, licenses are still restricted to 201 service-oriented jobs like restaurant owner, hairdresser, sign painter, and taxi driver. U.S. regulatory changes since 2011 facilitated the increased flow of resources and information to the island and allowed entrepreneurs to access tools, materials, and training from the United States. Cuba’s removal of exit permit requirements in 2013 also allowed more Cubans to travel abroad and hand-carry raw materials and inputs for their businesses back to Cuba. Cuba’s five-percent internet penetration rate is among the world’s lowest. The Cuban government stated its intent to increase access and develop a national broadband strategy that lays out goals and timelines, including making wireless connectivity available to 60 percent of the population and internet connectivity at home available to 50 percent of the population by 2020. Over the past year, Cuba began to make halting progress towards these goals, having established over 50 public Wi-Fi hotspots across the island. Even with hourly access rates equal to about 10 percent of the average monthly salary in Cuba, these spots are enormously popular, with about 150,000 Cubans logging onto to the internet daily through these hotspots. There are now approximately 700 public internet access points, includin,h,Hahn,JB g these hotspots, internet cafes, government youth centers, and hotels. The United States is working to improve and increase internet connectivity in Cuba through advocacy for policy changes that would allow for increased investment, including foreign direct investment and joint ventures, in wired and wireless telecommunications infrastructure and for more affordable and widespread internet access.